Jumping off my post from Monday, check out the actual wording of some of these marital surname laws that have been in place in China. Keep in mind that I'm only using English translations here, so it's entirely possible that some nuance may have been lost in the transition.
The Civil Code of the Republic of China (1930) Article 19 - "If the right to the use of one's name is unlawfully infringed, application may be made to the Court for the suppression of the infringement and for damages."
The New Marriage Law (1950, People's Republic of China) - Article 11 - "Both husband and wife shall have the right to use his or her own family name." Also, check out some more of the propaganda posters from that time period supporting the precepts of the law.
Second Marriage Law of 1980 (People's Republic of China) Article 14 - "Both husband and wife shall have the right to use his or her own surname and given name."